Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg signed the Dogme-95 manifesto and the “Vow of Chastity” to give birth to an avant-garde filmmaking style called Dogme-95. This style became immensely popular mostly because it was easy for the youth to just pick up a handy cam and start shooting, no background score, special lighting or optical filters not allowed; in short, a completely documentary feel to the cinema. Dibakar Banerjee’s Love Sex aur Dhoka, though not purely a Dogme-95 film, is a fantastic Bollywood tribute to this movement. An earlier Indian tribute to this movement though was Boman Irani’s debut film, Let’s Talk by Ram Madhvani.
The parallel movie movement in India emerged during the 1940s & 50s through the regional cinema of Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen. Their brand of movies were realist and chronicled of social change taking place as India entered independence.
The Indian parallel cinema movement owes it to the Italian neo realist and the French new wave cinema. Ray in his book Our Films, Their Films acknowledges the contributions of the pioneers of French new wave- Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut and Italian neo realism- Vittorio De Sica who’s Bicycle Thieves is known to have set Ray’s pursuit in motion.